Visi moksliniai straipsniai yra recenzuojami taikant slaptąjį (double-blind) recenzavimo metodą ne mažiau kaip dviejų redaktorių kolegijos paskirtų recenzentų. Apžvalginiai moksliniai straipsniai. Static and Dy namic Vi sual Acu ity As sess ment in Ophthalmological Prac tice. R. Liutkevičienė*. I. Ulozienė**. M. Šileikaitė**. ISSN EKONOMIKA Vol. 90(4). Povilas Gylys*. Vilnius University, Lithuania. Abstract. The gist of this article is the idea that the orthodox theory.


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The sacrament of Baptism. The sacrament of the Eucharist.

The first three parts of these texts are unchanged from the Catholic version, but when writing about the two sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist the only two accepted by Moksliniai straipsniai ,33 he quotes Matthew Now we have to turn our attention to East Central Europe of the sixteenth century.

There were three major powers, with weak elected kings and moksliniai straipsniai legislative bodies controlled by the magnates and lesser nobility: Poland-Lithuania, Bohemia and Hungary.

These powers also shared a similar ethos and culture, and moksliniai straipsniai constantly. To understand the Reformation, all three realms need to be taken into consideration.

Moksliniai straipsniai / Research articles : [150]

Moksliniai straipsniai Habsburg Empire was the only moksliniai straipsniai of the day, but quite weakened by various struggles with the Protestants, the Turks and France. Muscovy, which in subsequent centuries incorporated most of Poland-Lithuania in its czardom, at this time was yet too feeble to present any real danger.

Thus, there was space for political interplay. This discussion shall be limited to the Teutonic Order, which for much of the time was the main enemy of Poland-Lithuania.


The Order was in disarray and only moksliniai straipsniai small part was not in Polish hands. But moksliniai straipsniai of the main reasons why Albrecht chose to secularize the Order was that inurged by the Czar Basil, he became embroiled in a war against Poland.

A truce was reached inbut the Order was decimated by a mass conversion of knights to the new Lutheran faith.


In he petitioned Sigismund the Older of Poland to turn Prussia into a secular fiefdom of the crown and accept him as the hereditary duke. Albrecht installed Lutheranism as the state religion and took to heart Luther's injunction to spread the Gospel to all the inhabitants of his realm.

This was determined by the Church Moksliniai straipsniai ofinspired by Albrecht himself and developed by Moksliniai straipsniai Briessmann, which made the catechism and the sermon the central elements of the church service and stressed the idea of propagating the new faith among all the inhabitants of his realm.

Since many of them were more pagan than Catholic, Albrecht found it imperative to take care of his subjects' spiritual welfare in their own languages, in order to turn them into good Lutherans. The first translation was in Polish, when a catechism was produced by an anonymous writer before April 3,but no copies of it survive.

This translation was made at the urging of Paul Speratus, the Bishop of Pomesania. However the prevailing opinion is that the compiler was a Polish reformer, Martinus Glossa ca. In a Prussian church decree Kirchenordnung was moksliniai straipsniai that stipulated the use of the catechism in liturgical services, but none of the existing Polish catechisms could serve these needs.

Therefore, the above mentioned Seclutian produced a new catechism by the end of that year: Katechismu text prosti dla prostego ludu.


Obviously it was not an original composition but an adaptation of Luther's catechism. In the next year,another Polish rector in the service of Duke Albrecht, Johannes Maletius Maleczkimoksliniai straipsniai Seclutian's translation of being moksliniai straipsniai in many places and produced his own version, the Catechismus to iest nauka Krzescianska.


The real moksliniai straipsniai between these two antagonists was that Seclutian reflects most of the Melanchthonian liberal views, while Maletus clings mercilessly to a most narrowly interpreted Luthereranism.

The fight among the various reformers was to go on for a while yet, but eventually a common religious reality was created when a single authority was accepted. Many peasants had been germanized, even if their language itself did not die out until the end of the seventeenth century.

There are two manuscript documents in Prussian. The first, Das Elbinger deutsch-Preussische Vokabular, anonymously written in the early fifteenth century, consists of moksliniai straipsniai arranged by subject in categories; the second is Moksliniai straipsniai preussische Vokabular des Simon Grunau, the work of a Dominican monk writing in the years and has only Prussian words.

The translator is unknown, but he made the mistake of putting together various local dialects, so that it was incomprehensible to the Prussians.