A phonological tone tier labels the prosodic structure and a phonetic tone tier labels the surface Prosodic TypologyThe Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing$. Cambridge Core - Phonetics and Phonology - Intonational Phonology - by D. Robert Ladd. In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words but .. Pierrehumbert, Janet B. . The Phonology and Phonetics of English Intonation (Ph.D. Thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Pike  ‎Functions · ‎English · ‎French · ‎Punjabi.


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Robert Ladd provides an exceptionally clear presentation of the key ideas of the influential autosegmental-metrical theory of intonational phonology associated with the work of Intonational phonology Pierrehumbert. Another example is Has 2 the 2 plane 3 left 3 already 3, 3, 3?

And for example the latter question could also be framed without subject-verb inversion but with the same pitch contour: The 2 plane 2 has 2 left 2 already 2, 3, intonational phonology Questions with or can be ambiguous in English writing with regard to whether they are either-or questions or yes—no intonational phonology.

But intonation in speech eliminates the ambiguity. For example, Would 2 you 2 like 2 juice 3 or 2 soda 3, 1? In contrast, Would 2 you 2 like 2 juice 3 or 3 soda 3, 3?

Thus the two basic sentence pitch contours are rising-falling and rising. However, other within-sentence rises and falls result from the placement of prominence on the stressed syllables of certain words.

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Note that for declaratives or wh-questions with a final decline, the decline is located as a step-down to the syllable after the intonational phonology prominently stressed syllable, or as a down-glide on the last syllable itself if intonational phonology is prominently stressed.

But for final rising pitch on yes—no questions, the rise always occurs as an upward step to the last stressed syllable, and the high 3 pitch is retained through the rest of the sentence.


The ToBI system[ intonational phonology ] A more recent approach to the analysis of intonation grew out of the research intonational phonology Janet Pierrehumbert [24] and developed into the system most widely known by the name of ToBI short for "Tones and Break Indices". The approach is sometimes referred to as autosegmental.

Intonation (linguistics)

The most important points of this system are the following: Only two tones, associated with pitch accents, are recognised, these being H high and L low ; all other tonal contours are made up of combinations of H, L and some other modifying elements. In addition to the two tones mentioned above, the phonological system includes "break indices" used to mark the boundaries between prosodic elements.

Breaks may be of different levels. Tones are linked to stressed syllables: In addition, intonational phonology are phrasal accents which signal the pitch at the end of an intermediate phrase e.

A full ToBI transcription intonational phonology not only the above phonological elements, but also the acoustic signal on which the transcription is intonational phonology.

JSTOR: Access Check

The ToBI system is intended to be used in computer-based transcription. A simplified example of a Intonational phonology transcription is given below.


In this example, two phrases "we looked at the sky" and "and saw the clouds" are combined into one larger intonational phrase; there is a rise on "sky" and a fall on "clouds": The continuation pattern is a rise in pitch occurring in the last syllable of a rhythm intonational phonology typically intonational phonology phrase.

The finality pattern is a sharp fall in pitch occurring in the last syllable of a declarative statement.

Continuation pattern[ edit ] The most distinctive feature of French intonation is the continuation pattern. While many languages, such as Intonational phonology and Spanishplace stress on a particular syllable of each word, and while many speakers of languages such intonational phonology English may accompany this stress with a rising intonation, French has neither stress nor distinctive intonation on a given syllable.