Marcus Tullius Cicero, Cicero De Officiis, translated with an Introduction and Notes by Andrew P. Peabody (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., ). 9/16/ Project Gutenberg · 57, free ebooks · 21 by Marcus Tullius Cicero. De Officiis by Marcus Tullius Cicero. Book Cover. Download; Bibrec  EBook-No‎: ‎ De Officiis is a treatise by Marcus Tullius Cicero divided into three books, in which Cicero expounds his conception of the best way to live, behave, and observe  Publication date‎: ‎44 BC.


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III - Toute recherche relative au bien moral comprend deux parties: Il y a encore une autre division. On distingue en effet l'acte moral moyen de celui qui est parfait.

Au lieu d'une de officiis ciceron tripartite il en faut donc une en cinq parties. C'est aussi un des traits essentiels de l'homme que la recherche, la poursuite du vrai. Not only is the question of right or wrong as to de officiis ciceron act wont to be considered, but also the question, of two right things which is the more right; equally, of two expedient things which is the more expedient.

Thus we see that the division which Panaetius thought should be threefold ought to be distributed under five heads. First, de officiis ciceron, I am to treat of the right, but under two heads; then, in the same way, of the expedient; lastly, of their seeming conflict.

M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis, Book I: Moral Goodness, section 1

De officiis ciceron the beginning, animals of every species were endowed with the instinct that prompts them to take care of themselves as to life and bodily well-being, to shun whatever threatens to do them harm, and to seek and provide whatever is de officiis ciceron for Edition: The appetite for sexual union for the production of offspring is, also, common to all animals, together with a certain degree of care for their offspring.

But between man and beast there is this essential difference, that the latter, moved by sense alone, adapts himself only to that which is present in place and time, having very little cognizance of the past or the future.

Man, on the other hand — because he is possessed of reason, by which he discerns consequences, sees the causes of things, understands the rise and progress of events, compares similar objects, and connects and associates the future with the present — easily takes into view the whole course of life, and provides things necessary for it.

Nature too, by virtue of reason, brings man into relations of mutual intercourse and society with his fellow-men; generates in him a de officiis ciceron love for his children; prompts him to promote and attend social gatherings and public assemblies; and awakens in him the desire to provide what may suffice for the support and nourishment, not of himself alone, but of his wife, his children, and others whom he holds dear and is bound to protect.

The research and investigation of truth, also, are a special property of man.

De Officiis - Wikipedia

Thus, when we are free from necessary occupations, we want to see, or hear, or learn something, and regard the knowledge Edition: Hence de officiis ciceron derived greatness of mind and contempt for the vicissitudes of human fortune. Nor does it indicate any feeble force of nature and of reason, that of all animals man alone has a sense of order, and decency, and moderation in action and in speech.

Thus no other animal feels the beauty, elegance, symmetry, of the things that he sees; while by nature and reason, man, transferring these qualities from the eyes to the mind, considers that much more, even, are beauty, consistency, and order to be preserved in purposes and acts, and takes heed that he do nothing indecorous or effeminate, and still more, that in all his thoughts and deeds he neither do nor think de officiis ciceron lascivious.

From these elements the right, which is the object of our inquiry, is composed and created; and this, even if it be not ennobled in title, yet is honorable, and even if no one praise it, we truly pronounce it in its very nature worthy of all praise.

Cicéron, de officiis, livre I.

You behold, indeed, my son Marcus, the very form and, as it were, the countenance of the right, which, were it seen by the eyes, as Plato says, would awaken the intensest love of wisdom.

But whatever is right springs from one of four sources. It consists either in the perception and skilful treatment of the truth; or in maintaining good-fellowship with men, giving to every one his due, and keeping faith in contracts and promises; or in the greatness and strength of a lofty and unconquered mind; or in the order and measure that constitute moderation and temperance.

For in proportion as one sees clearly what is the inmost and essential truth de officiis ciceron regard to any subject, and can demonstrate it with equal acuteness and promptness, he is wont to be regarded, and justly, as de officiis ciceron transcendent discretion and wisdom.

De officiis. With an English translation by Walter Miller

Therefore truth is submitted to this virtue as the Edition: But order, and consistency, and moderation, and similar qualities have their scope in affairs that demand not merely the movement of the mind, but some outward action; for it is by bringing to the concerns of daily life a certain method and order that we shall maintain honor and propriety.

Of de officiis ciceron four heads into which I have divided the nature de officiis ciceron force of the right, the first, which consists in the cognizance of truth, bears the closest relation to human nature.

For we are all attracted and drawn to the desire of knowledge and wisdom, in which we deem it admirable to excel, but both an evil and a shame to fail, to be mistaken, to be ignorant, to be deceived.


In this quest of knowledge, both natural and right, there are two faults to be shunned, — one, the taking of unknown things for known, and giving our assent to them too hastily, which fault he who wishes to escape and all ought so to de officiis ciceron will give time and diligence to reflect on the de officiis ciceron proposed for his consideration.

These faults being shunned, whatever labor and care may be bestowed on subjects becoming a virtuous mind and worth knowing, will be justly commended.


Thus we learn that Caius Sulpicius was versed in astronomy, 1 as I myself knew Sextius Pompeius to be in geometry, 2 as many are in logic, many in civil law, — all which sciences are concerned in the investigation of truth, but by whose pursuit duty will not suffer one to be drawn away from the active management of affairs.

For the reputation of virtue consists wholly in active life, from de officiis ciceron, however, there is often a respite, and frequent opportunities are afforded for returning to the pursuit of knowledge.

At the same time mental activity, which never ceases, may retain us, without conscious effort, in meditation on the subjects of our study. But all thought and mental action ought to be occupied either in taking counsel as to de officiis ciceron things that are right and that appertain to a good Edition: I have thus spoken of the first source of duty.