The Marxist world outlook. 29 August The most fundamental question in philosophy is about the connection between human beings and the universe in. General Introduction to Marxism. MARXISM IS COMPLICATED by the fact that Marx is by no means the only influence on this critical school; indeed, given the. You have no doubt already heard about the Marxist theory of alienation. The emergence, regularization and generalization of commodity production are directly.


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They subdivide as bourgeoisie and the petite bourgeoisie.

An Introduction to Marxist Economic Theory - I. The Theory of Value and Surplus Value

Petite bourgeoisie are those who work and can afford to buy little labour power i. Marxism predicts that the continual reinvention of the means of production eventually would destroy the petite bourgeoisie, degrading them from the middle class to the proletariat.


Having no interest in international or national economics affairs, An introduction to marxism claimed that this specific sub-division of the proletariat would play no part in the eventual social revolution.

Class consciousness denotes the awareness—of itself and the social world—that a social class possesses and its capacity to rationally act in their best interests, hence class consciousness is required before they can effect a successful revolution and thus the dictatorship of the proletariat.

For any person looking to change the world an introduction to marxism a socialist direction the ideas of Marxism are a vital, even indispensable, tool and weapon to assist the working class in its struggle to change society.


Most people who describe themselves as socialists will have at one stage or another looked at Marxist ideas and, unfortunately, some have chosen to ignore the rich experience and understanding that Marxist ideas add to an understanding of the capitalist world and how to change it.

The number an introduction to marxism commodities is very great.

Introduction to Marxism

They are interchangeable, which means that they must have a common quality, because everything which is interchangeable is comparable and everything which is comparable must have at least one quality in common. Things which have no quality in common are, by definition, not comparable with each other.

Let us an introduction to marxism each of these commodities. What qualities do they possess? First of all, they have an infinite set of natural qualities: Is there any one of the physical qualities which can be the basis for comparing them as commodities, for serving as the common measure an introduction to marxism their exchange value?

General Introduction to Marxism

Could it be weight? Obviously not, since a pound of butter does not have the same value as a pound of gold. Is it volume or length?

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Examples will immediately show that it is none of these. In short, all those things which make up the natural quality of a commodity, everything which is a physical or chemical quality of this commodity, certainly determines its use value, its relative usefulness, an introduction to marxism not its exchange value.

Exchange value must consequently be abstracted from everything that consists of a natural physical quality in the commodity.

A common quality must be found in all of these commodities which is not physical. Human labor can be thought of in two different ways. It can be considered as specific concrete labor, such an introduction to marxism the labor of the baker, butcher, shoemaker, weaver, blacksmith, etc.


But so long as it is thought of as specific concrete work, it is being viewed in its aspect of labor which produces only use values.

Under these conditions we are concerning ourselves only with the physical qualities of commodities and these are precisely the qualities which are not comparable. The only thing which commodities have in common from the viewpoint of exchanging them is that they are all produced by abstract human labor, that is to say, by producers who are related to each other on a basis of an introduction to marxism as a result of the fact that they are all producing goods for exchange.

The common quality of commodities, consequently, resides in the fact that they are the products an introduction to marxism abstract human labor and it is this which supplies the measure of their exchange value, of their exchangeability.

It is, consequently, the quality of socially necessary labor in the production of commodities which determines their exchange value.

Introduction to Marxism: Ernest Mandel: : Books

Is the fact that all commodities are produced by an introduction to marxism human labor really the only quality which they have in common, apart from their natural qualities? There are not a few writers who thought they had discovered others.

In general, however, these have always been reducible either to physical qualities or to the fact that they are products of abstract labor. A third and final proof of the correctness of the labor theory of value is an introduction to marxism proof by reduction to the absurd.